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2nd BacTicket 2 English Unit 10: Brain Drain

Ticket 2 English Unit 10: Brain Drain

Unit 10: Brain Drain

According to  Merriam-Webster Dictionary :

Brain Drain is the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another usually for better pay or living conditions

1- Vocabulary

Causes of Brain Drain

Push Factors (reasons that are in their countries of origin) ‎

  • Unsatisfactory living conditions ‎
  • Lack of research and other facilities including ‎support staff
  • Declining quality of the educational system ‎
  • Social unrest, political conflicts, and wars ‎
  • Discrimination in appointments and promotions
  • Lack of satisfactory working conditions ‎
  • Low wages and income

Pull Factors (reasons that are in the host countries)

  • Higher wages and salaries ‎
  • Substantial funds for research, advanced ‎technology, modern facilities ‎
  • Political stability ‎
  • Better working conditions ‎
  • Intellectual freedom ‎

Other Vocabulary Related to the Unit

  • Brain drain: The emigration of educated professionals to other countries
  • Physician: A person who practices medicine
  • Physicist: An expert in physics
  • Scholar: An educated person who has gained mastery in one or more disciplines
  • Income: Revenue
  • Gain: Obtain something needed or wanted
  • Underdeveloped: Not yet fully developed
  • Skilled: Having the ability to perform a task expertly and well
  • Unskilled: Not having a special skill or training
  • Tempting: Highly attractive


  • inter: Between, among (intercontinental)
  • extra: Outside, beyond (extraterrestrial)
  • intra: Within, inside (intracellular)
  • under: Less than, insufficient (underpaid)
  • over: Excessively, more than (overpopulated) 
  • super: Above, over, beyond (supersonic) 
  • hyper: Above, over, excessive (hypersensitive) 


  • Brain drain
  • Low pay
  • Attract attention
  • Developed countries
  • High technology
  • Skilled workers
  • Job opportunities
  • Host countries
  • Human resources

2- Functions: Expressing Regret 

Regret can be about something in present or in past.

If it is in present then we use the rule of present wish or conditional 2

If it is in past then we use the rule of past wish or conditional 3

Present Regret 

Present situation

don’t know how to use a computer.

Regret in present

  • I regret not knowing How to use a computer
  • If only I knew how to use a computer
  • I wish I knew how to use a computer

Past Regret 

Past situation

didn’t know how to use a computer

Regret in past

  • I regret not knowing How to use a computer
  • If only I had known how to use a computer
  • I wish I had known how to use a computer

Grammar: Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Clauses ‎

Restrictive clauses and non-restrictive clauses are two types of clauses that can be used in a sentence.

A restrictive clause

is a clause that is essential to the meaning of a sentence because it specifies which particular thing or person is being referred to. It is called restrictive because it restricts or defines the noun or pronoun that it modifies. Restrictive clauses are not set off by commas.

For example:

“The book that I borrowed from the library is really interesting.” In this sentence, the clause “that I borrowed from the library” is a restrictive clause because it specifies which book is being referred to. Without this clause, the sentence would be ambiguous because it would not be clear which book is being discussed.

A non-restrictive clause,

on the other hand, is a clause that provides additional information about the noun or pronoun but is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Non-restrictive clauses are set off by commas.

For example:

“My friend, who lives in New York, is coming to visit.” In this sentence, the clause “who lives in New York” is a non-restrictive clause because it provides additional information about the friend but is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.

Who = used for persons
Which = preferences ‎
Whose = possession ‎
That = persons, animals, and things‎

Examples of Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Clauses

  • She has a son who is a doctor.‎
  • She lives in a city which she likes a lot.
  • ‎That boy, whose jeans are blue, is my friend.‎
  • My friend, who is a doctor, is coming over later.
  • The man, whom I met at the conference, is coming to visit.
  • I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.


  1. hello sir i really appreciate your help thank you so much . Allah Bless you.
    but please i didn’t find unit 9 ?

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