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2nd BacGateway 2 Unit 8: Brain Drain

Gateway 2 Unit 8: Brain Drain


According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Brain Drain is the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another, usually for better pay or living conditions

Causes of Brain Drain

Push factors (reasons that are in their countries of origins) ‎

  • Unsatisfactory living conditions ‎
  • Lack of research and other facilities including ‎support staff
  • Declining quality of the educational system ‎
  • Social unrest, political conflicts and wars ‎
  • Discrimination in appointments and promotions
  • Lack of satisfactory working conditions ‎
  • Low wages and income

Pull factors (reasons that are in the host countries)

  • Higher wages and salaries ‎
  • Substantial funds for research, advanced ‎technology, modern facilities ‎
  • Political stability ‎
  • Better working conditions ‎
  • Intellectual freedom ‎

Other Vocabulary Related tthe Unit

  • Brain drain: The emigration of educated professionals to other countries
  • Physician: A person who practices medicine
  • Physicist: An expert in physics
  • Scholar: An educated person who has gained mastery in one or more disciplines
  • Income: Revenue
  • Gain: Obtain something needed or wanted
  • Underdeveloped: Not yet fully developed
  • Skilled: Having the ability to perform a task expertly and well
  • Unskilled: Not having a special skill or training
  • Tempting: Highly attractive


  • inter: Between, among (intercontinental)
  • extra: Outside, beyond (extraterrestrial)
  • intra: Within, inside (intracellular)
  • under: Less than, insufficient (underpaid)
  • over: Excessively, more than (overpopulated)
  • super: Above, over, beyond (supersonic)
  • hyper: Above, over, excessive (hypersensitive)


  • Brain drain
  • Low pay
  • Attract attention
  • Developed countries
  • High technology
  • Skilled workers
  • Job opportunities
  • Host countries
  • Human resources

Expressing Concession

Concession is when we have two opposing ideas. We can link them in different ways. Here are some expressions of concessions in sentences. 

I like to eat fish but not to catch them.
It was raining; but/ yet/ and yet, Ann went out without an umbrella.
Although / Though/ Even though it was raining, Ann went out without an umbrella.
Despite / In spite of the rain, Ann went out without an umbrella.
It was raining; however, / nevertheless,/ nonetheless, Ann went out without an umbrella.

In spite of/Despite + Gerund or noun
Although + Subject + verb

Functions: Asking for and Giving Advice

Asking for and giving advice can be done with different methods. This depends on the formality or informality of the position or situation you are in. Here are some sentences that can help you ask for or give advice.

Asking for Advice

  • What do you advise me to…….?
  • What should I do?
  • If you were in my situation, What would you do?
  • Do you suggest/have any advice?
  • What’s the best/practical advice for this situation?
  • I just don’t know what to do.
  • How can I……..?
  • What would you advise me to do?
  • What ought I do?
  • What would you do if……?
  • Do you think it’s a good idea if I………?

Giving Advice

  • If I were you, I would………..
  • You should…………
  • You’d better (not) + (bare infinitive)………………
  • Why don’t you………..
  • It would be better if you……………..
  • I advise you to…………
  • In your situation, I would…………….
  • Have thought about……………
  • Maybe you should……….

Examples of Asking for and Giving Advice

  • Speaker 1: I suffer from acne. What should I do?
  • Speaker 2: If I were you I would go to a dermatologist.
  • Speaker 1: I want to improve my writing skills, do you suggest any advice?
  • Speaker 2: In your situation, I would read a lot and practice some writing.
  • Speaker 1: I am thinking of leaving Morocco once and for all.
  • Speaker 2: You’d better not do it. There is no sweet place like home.

Grammar: Relative Clauses ‎

Relative clauses are clauses that modify a noun or pronoun in a sentence. They are also called adjective clauses because they function like adjectives in a sentence, providing additional information about the noun or pronoun that they modify.

Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns such as “who,” “whom,” “whose,” “that,” and “which.” They can be either essential or nonessential to the meaning of the sentence. Essential relative clauses cannot be removed from the sentence without changing its meaning, while nonessential relative clauses can be removed without affecting the essential meaning of the sentence.

For example:

  • The man who I saw at the store is my neighbor. (essential relative clause)
  • The book, which I read last night, was really interesting. (nonessential relative clause)

Relative clauses can also be restrictive or nonrestrictive. Restrictive relative clauses provide essential information that is necessary to identify the noun or pronoun that they modify, while nonrestrictive relative clauses provide additional, but not essential, information about the noun or pronoun. Nonrestrictive relative clauses are set off by commas.

For example:

  • The woman who lives next door is my friend. (restrictive relative clause)
  • My sister, who is a doctor, is coming to visit. (nonrestrictive relative clause)

Who = refers to a subject
whom = refers to the object of a sentence
Which = it refers to an object (preferences) 
That = persons, animals, and things‎
when = refers to time.
where = refers to a place.
Whose = refers to possession ‎

‎ Examples:

  • A woman teaches us French. The woman has a beautiful car.

the woman who/that teaches us french has a beautiful car.

  • A bird is on the tree. The bird is singing.

The bird which/that is on the tree is singing.

  • I met a boy yesterday. The boy was my cousin.

The boy whom I met yesterday was my cousin.

  • The government helps poor families. Their children go to school.

the government helps poor families whose children go to school.

  • Summer is a season. Many people love to go to the beach in summer.

Summer is a season when people love to go to the beach.

  • Morocco is a beautiful country. Many tourists love to spend their holidays in  Morocco.

Morocco is a beautiful country where many tourists love to spend their holidays.

Writing: Cause and Effect Essay

In a cause/effect essay, you discuss the causes (reasons) for something, effects (results), or both causes and effects.


Explanation of the issue


Paragraph one: Causes
A. 1st cause.
B. 2nd cause.
C. 3rd cause.

Paragraph two: effects
D. First effect.
E. Second effect.
F. Third effect.

III. Conclusion

State a summary of your point of view.


I. Introduction
…………. is a serious matter/issue/phenomenon that…………threatens/affects…………….negatively/positively. It is the outcome of different reasons and of course, it has several………. effects too. I am going to shed light on both causes and consequences of ………………...

II. Body
There are several/numerous/plenty of reasons behind ……..(the subject you are discussing) …... To begin with, ……………(1st cause)………………. Next, ……………(2nd cause)……….. In addition to this, ………………(3rd cause)…………..(your subject matter)………….leads to different consequences/results/effects. Firstly…………(1st effect)…………………………. Secondly, ……………..(2nd effect)………..Thirdly, ………………………….(3rd effect)…………………………….

III. Conclusion
As mentioned before, ………..(your subject matter)……….has many effects on ………. Hence there are many measures to be taken urgently. First ………………second…………finally……………………..

Example of Cause and Effect Essay (1)

Brain drain is a serious matter that threatens developing countries negatively. It is the outcome of different reasons and of course, it has several negative effects too. I am going to shed light on both causes and consequences of this phenomenon.

There are several reasons behind Brain drain. To begin with, Unsatisfactory living conditions may motivate people to leave their home countries due to concerns about safety and security, or a desire for higher salaries and better living conditions in other countries ‎. In addition to this, highly skilled workers can be driven by the attraction of more competitive job markets and the opportunity to work with leading organizations and researchers in other countries. Furthermore, Intellectual freedom ‎that is in the host countries can drive people to leave their home countries. Brain drain can have different consequences. Firstly, it can lead to a loss of skilled labor and expertise, which can have a negative impact on the country’s economy and overall development. Secondly, Brain drain can also have social and cultural consequences for the home country. The loss of skilled individuals can lead to a brain drain of knowledge and expertise, as well as a loss of cultural diversity within the country. Thirdly, brain drain can have negative results on the country’s ability to innovate and solve complex problems, and can also lead to a decline in the country’s global influence.

Overall, brain drain is a complex issue with both causes and effects that need to be carefully considered by policymakers. While it may offer benefits to both the home and host countries, it is important to find ways to address the root causes of brain drain and find ways to retain skilled labor and expertise in the home country. This could include investing in education and training, creating job opportunities, and promoting political stability and security.

Example of Cause and Effect Essay (2)

Bullying in social media is a serious matter that threatens our youth negatively. It is the outcome of different reasons and of course, it has several negative effects too. I am going to shed light on both causes and consequences of Bullying in social media.

There are several reasons behind Bullying in social media. To begin with, anonymity: When people can hide behind a screen, they may feel more emboldened to engage in aggressive or hurtful behavior. Next, the wide reach: The fast-paced nature of social media and the ability to share content quickly and widely can make it easy for bullying to spread quickly. In addition to this, Immaturity or lack of empathy: Some people may not fully understand the impact of their actions online and may engage in bullying without considering the consequences. Bullying in social media leads to different consequences. Firstly, it can cause emotional distress, including depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Secondly, It can also lead to physical harm, as some victims of bullying may turn to self-harm or even suicide as a result of the abuse they have experienced. Thirdly, social isolation: Bullying in social media can lead to social isolation, as victims may feel too embarrassed or afraid to participate in online activities.

As mentioned before, Bullying in social media has many effects on people. Hence there are many measures to be taken urgently. First, one way is to educate people about the consequences of their actions and encourage them to think before they post. Second, We can also work to create a culture of kindness and respect online, by setting a good example and speaking out against bullying when we see it. Finally, we can work with social media platforms to develop policies and tools that help to prevent and address bullying.

In conclusion, bullying in social media is a serious issue that has far-reaching consequences. By addressing the causes and working to mitigate the effects, we can create a safer and more positive online environment for everyone.

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