Gateway 2 Unit 5: Advances in Science

Gateway 2 Unit 5: Advances in Science

Gateway 2 Unit 5: Advances in Science

Gateway 2 Unit 5: Advances in Science

1- Vocabulary

The differences between science and technology:

Science: Focuses on general knowledge, it is the process of producing knowledge via observations and investigating natural phenomena. Examples: math, physics chemistry, astronomy……

Technology: Applied science, is the ability to change the world with materials, it is practical. Examples: robotics, biotechnology, communication, engineering ……

2- Functions: Expressing Opinions

These are expressions that can help you in asking or giving/expressing opinions about a subject.

Asking About Opinions

  • What do you think about….
  • In your opinion, …?
  • What’s your opinion….?
  • Any initial thoughts on …?
  • Do you have any particular views on …?
  • Are you for or against…..?
  • Do you think that …..?
  • If I asked your opinion about …………, what would you say?
  • Would I be right in saying …?
  • How do you feel about …?
  • Do you share the view that …?
  • Please tell me your opinion on…..
  • Would you agree that …?

Expressing Opinions

  • I think…
  • As far as I’m concerned,…
  • To my mind,…
  • According to me,…
  • Some people may disagree with me, but …
  • As I see it, …
  • It seems to me that…
  • In my point of view / my opinion,…
  • From my point of view…
  • To the best of my knowledge, …
  • To my mind / To my way of thinking, …
  • I am of the opinion that…
  • I have come to the conclusion that …
  • Personally speaking / Speaking for myself, …
  • I’m no expert (on this), but …
  • I take the view that. ..
  • My personal view is that…
  • In my experience…
  • As far as I understand / can see/see it,…


  • I agree with you / I do agree
  • You’re definitely right.
  • I share the same view
  • I couldn’t agree more.
  • We seem to be on the same wavelength.
  • It’s so nice to meet someone who thinks that way too.
  • That is logical.
  • I can’t argue with that.
  • (I have) No doubt about it
  • That is a more convincing argument, I must admit.
  • That’s a good point.
  • I see your point.
  • (That) makes sense (to me).


  • I’m afraid. I can’t agree with you.
  • No way.
  • I disagree with you.
  • I don’t agree with you.
  • That’s not always true.
  • You could be right, but…
  • It’s hard to argue with that, but…
  • I’m not sure I agree with you
  • I think you’re wrong
  • I can see a hole in that argument.
  • That’s not the way I see it.
  • Sorry, but I am not convinced.
  • It is quite old-fashioned to say that.

3- Grammar: The Future Perfect

The Form of the Future Perfect Tense

The Future perfect tense is written this way:

Will / shall have + past participle


– Affirmative: They will / shall have finished the school year by July.
– Negative: He shall / will not have completed the test by the end of the lesson.
– Interrogative: Will / shall you have eaten this food by then?

The Use of the Future Perfect Tense 

The future perfect tense is usually used to talk about an action:

  • That will be completed before a specific time in the future.
  • That will be completed before another action takes place in the future.

In Morocco, the school year starts in September and finishes on 10th of July. we can say:

Students will have done all their tests by the beginning of July.

So before the 10th of July comes, the action of doing tests will have been completed as shown in this picture:

The future perfect tense


The future perfect tense is usually used with a time expression starting with By: By the next week, by the coming summer, by then, by that time, by the 1st…….

Writing: Descriptive Essay

What is a Descriptive Paragraph?

A descriptive paragraph is a piece of writing where you describe a person, a place, a feeling, a situation, or an event. It is characterized by the use of adjectives. By using words, you make the reader see what you are describing.

This lesson focuses on DESCRIBING A PERSON.

To describe a person you need to talk about his/her:

Physical Appearance: the way he/she looks like

  • Height: tall, short, medium height…
  • Build: frail, slim, thin, skinny, stocky, plump, fat, chubby, large, heavy, well-built, fit…
  • Age: young, teenager, middle-aged, elderly…
  • Face: round, oval, wrinkled, furrowed, dimpled, sun-tanned, fair-skinned, baby-faced, chiseled…
  • Eyes: big, round, blue, hazel, small, piggy, narrow, bloodshot…
  • Hair: bald; straight, curly, spiky, wavy, black…
  • Clothes: casual, shabby, smart, tidy, untidy, messy…

Personality: his/her psychological traits or attitudes

  • Intelligent, smart, clever, gifted, brainy…
  • shy, timid, introverted, extroverted, optimistic, pessimistic, sensitive, sensible, relaxed, tense…
  • compassionate, considerate, courteous, generous, exuberant, practical…
  • sociable, quarrelsome, argumentative, logical, rational, easy-going, even-tempered, honest, trustworthy, reliable, sincere…

Structure of a Descriptive Paragraph

Topic Sentence

It’s the 1st sentence in your paragraph where you directly say who you are going to talk about

Supporting Sentences

  • talk about his/her physical appearance
  • Then talk about his/her personality 

or vice versa. You may begin by describing his/her personality then you move to describe his/her physical appearance.

You may also add what is special about that person

Concluding Sentence

It is the last sentence in your paragraph where you rephrase what you said in your Topic Sentence

An Example of a Descriptive Paragraph

(Topic Sentence) Bob is my best friend at school. (Supporting Sentences: Physical Appearance) I’ve known him since primary school. He is a tall person with a strong body. He has a round face with brown eyes. His hair is black and curly. Though he is young, he looks older than his age because of some wrinkles he has on his face. He also has dimples on his cheeks which makes him look handsome. Bob usually wears casual clothes. He is not keen on brands and fashion. (Supporting Sentences: Personality)As for his personality, Bob is a shy and introverted person. He does not like being around people. He is a brainy guy. We call him the geek because of his love for IT. Not to mention that he is an honest and trustworthy person. (Concluding Sentence) To sum up, Bob is one of the people I admire most.